• M.L., S.E.F., T.C.B. and N.G.M. conceived the study, with M.L. overseeing general analysis and A.A. overseeing 23andMe analysis. C.D., P.F., E.E., G.A., S.D.G., Z.W., B.M. and M.L. performed statistical and/or downstream annotation analysis. R.E.M. advised C.D. on some analysis. C.D. drafted the manuscript, with sections contributed by P.F., E.E., G.A., Z.W. and M.L. B.S.P., C.F. and S.E.F. supervised the GenLang GWAS. J.Z. managed the Chinese Reading Study. S.P., J.B.T., A.P.M. and J.F.S. managed the UKDys study. J.R.G., R.K.O., E.G.W., J.C.D., B.F.P. and S.D.S. managed the CLDRC study. M.J.W., T.C.B. and N.G.M. managed the Australian adolescent twin studies. M.L., T.C.B., S.E.F. and N.G.M. managed the Australian adult reading study. All authors critically reviewed the manuscript.

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